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Mikhail P. Kulakov, Sr, PhD

Born in Leningrad in 1927 to the family of a Seventh-day Adventist minister who was laboring for conscience amidst state-enforced atheism, Dr. Kulakov endured persecution, relocation, and the periodic arrest of his father. After becoming the leader of underground worship services he, too, was arrested and sentenced to hard labor in the gulag followed by exile to Kazakhstan.
Upon his release in 1953, Kulakov began an underground journal for ministers, and established unofficial courses for the training of ministers. The ascendancy of Gorbachev enabled Kulakov to publish openly in leading national papers the articles on freedom of conscience that won him the respect and admiration of fellow believers, dissidents, intellectuals and human rights activists. In 1992 Kulakov founded the Russian chapter of the International Religious Liberty Association and as its first secretary advocated for the freedom of conscience.